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Dating online research

The Virtues and Downsides of Online Dating,Computer mediated communication: Online dating and uncertainty reduction

To recapitulate, the realm of online dating gives wonderful opportunity to research how FtF interaction theories like URT apply in CMC contexts. Drawing on early research from Berger 5/5(4) AdCompare Top 10 Online Dating Sites - Try the Best Dating Sites Today!This can also be handy if youre very busy and dont have time to navigate between Types: All Ages Dating Sites, Senior Dating Sites, Gay Dating Sites AdFind Love With the Help Of Top 5 Dating Sites. Make a Year to Remember! Online Dating Has Already Changed The Lives of Millions of People. Join blogger.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past monthService catalog: Video Chat, See Profiles, Find Singles Nearby, Match with Locals ... read more

A critical premise of our discussion is that people who use online dating sites via CMC are using it in the hope that it will lead to eventual FtF communication. Another important term will be self-monitor. The concept of being a self-monitor will be integral in our discussion of online dating because the information we choose to display online is usually highly selective and for the purpose of attracting a mate for a FtF interaction. Finally, URT will refer to the classic theory by Berger that theorized that humans use specific strategies and cues before divulging more personal information p.

URT will be discussed more thoroughly later in the paper. In our discussion, it is important to review relevant literature regarding technology, use of social media and relationships , communication and online dating in general.

Firstly, we will discuss the original theories regarding FtF communication as outlined in URT. Berger and Calabrese , Dawkins, and Gibbs et al, will give relevant background information and details. Moreover, Twente N. will outline the specific strategies and factors that influence human behavior regarding reducing uncertainty.

Gudykunst will also discuss how URT applies within the contexts of different ethnicities and sex. This will allow us to get comprehensive background information. Next, it is important to have a basic understanding of how CMC developed and the early schools of thought that analyzed this interaction Parks, While highly pessimistic, Parks offered evidence that online relationships can not only be successful, but can develop into eventual FtF interaction. Sheldon will show that interaction on Facebook offers a wealth of information regarding how we deal with uncertainty within a network where we tend to know most of the individuals in person, or have at least met them on one occasion.

Also, Sheldon will demonstrate that individuals in SNS use specific cues and elements of interaction alongside strategies of URT to predict their behavior.

Finally, we will investigate how online dating sites like eHarmony integrate scientific principles of communication and how well they apply to URT. A general view of the process of meeting individuals and how communication is facilitated will be offered by the eHarmony website eHarmony, N.

This will allow us to analyze exactly how applicable URT is to CMC settings and how well the dating service tailors to the different context of communication.

Furthermore, we will look at case studies specific to online dating sites like Match. com and eHarmony. Gibbs will provide an in-depth study of Match. com members to show that in an online setting, members tend to practice similar uncertainty reduction strategies in anticipation of a FtF meeting. Specifically, what strategies are mostly utilized and what cues are critical to the overall interaction.

In meeting new people FtF, we tend to engage in behaviors that reduce our uncertainty about the other person. This original URT was supplemented by Berger by including that humans tend to reduce uncertainty by utilizing one or all of the three strategies: passive, active and interactive Dawkins, , p.

Of the strategies listed, observing others where the person is likely to act natural is passive while being in direct contact with them is active Twente, N. An interactive strategy, however, includes communicating with the person directly in an effort to find out more about the person. The interactive strategy of engaging in information seeking behavior is by far the most important aspect of reducing uncertainty.

This means that as we meet new people, we want to find out more about them to reduce our uncertainty about them. However, studies suggest that we are also hesitant to divulge personal information about ourselves so easily.

This means that as we are looking for information about others, we tend to only divulge information at the same rate as other people do in FtF communication. This would make sense as we tend to fear judgment by other people that we do not know as well. There also exist some demographic differences in URT. According to William Gudykunst and Mitchell Hammer in The Influence of Ethnicity, Gender, and Dyadic Composition on Uncertainty Reduction In Initial Interactions, there were differences among blacks and whites in their communicative behavior.

Moreover, their results did not suggest that gender played a role in using uncertainty reduction strategies Gudykunst, , p. This means that men and women tend to act similarly in reducing uncertainty in social situations. Essentially, the URT strategy of information seeking was higher in those that were more self-conscious of their behavior. Other than that, ethnicity and gender did not affect URT in the FtF context that the study was researched within.

Next, it is important to understand the early schools of thought and development of online communication. His literature review argued that this was true because people within CMC settings exert more verbal aggression, blunt disclosure and negative behavior in comparison to groups in FtF settings Parks, , p. Despite the negative feedback from other scholars, Parks found evidence that online relationships can develop and people can adapt their behavior to account for the missing aspects of interaction, like physical proximity and frequency.

For instance, even in early as , Parks argued that online settings can foster the growth of meaningful relationships, despite the shortcomings of missing cues in FtF communication. Even more surprising is the notion that the relationships that developed online tended to expand to FtF communication over time:. Although nearly all respondents used direct E-mail About a third had used the telephone The average number of channels used was 2. These findings imply that relationships that begin on line rarely stay there Parks, , p.

This research implies that even as early in , the internet and CMC did foster the development of new relationships that eventually extended out of the scope of online interaction. This had a lot to do with how users managed uncertainty with the tools they had. Since visual and aural cues were not always present, the use of smileys and other improvised cues were used to develop rapport with other individuals Parks, , p. Essentially, the way that people communicated online in involved an adaptation of visual cues to textual ones.

By , the growth of online dating sites resulted in services that were tailored specifically to meet the needs to people looking to find relationships online.

These services were designed to facilitate, foster and encourage the growth of successful relations that extended outside of CMC. Her study of college students suggested that URT did apply cohesively in this CMC setting: users who interacted a lot tended to experience less uncertainty Sheldon, , p. Indeed, from to , not much has changed in terms of what is possible within the realm of CMC. While users can share photos, videos and other forms of multimedia, the factors of proximity and physical cues are still not there.

Essentially, CMC settings are successful in fostering relationships because visual cues are not requirements of interaction and when they are necessary, textual cues were seen to be comparable alternatives.

Facebook relationships thrive on the level of intimacy within self-disclosure. This means that the more we disclose to others in terms of quality, not so much quality, the more meaningful the relationship becomes.

This supports URT because as we disclose more and trust others, we develop stronger relationships. As we develop stronger online relationships, we reduce the overall uncertainty about the other person. Thus, interactions on Facebook appear more like FtF communication than meets the eye. As predictability was also a critical aspect of URT, the evidence would suggest that CMC relationships that developed on Facebook took on the same conventional characteristics of FtF interactions.

Consequently, while the context for communication is entirely different in an online setting, the means and social processes involved in developing friendships was still consistent. However, it is important to understand that Facebook offers an environment where we tend to know most of our connections in person, see their pictures and have the ability to seek out information and context clues from their activity.

Therefore, it is also important to study how URT and the strategies apply in CMC when we do not necessarily know or have existing FtF relationships with the other person. Such a case study is other online dating sites. eHarmony offers a great example to understand how URT applies to a CMC setting where users may not know their connections very well. Neil Warren utilized his 35 years of clinical experience to launch a service that would utilize scientific research on CMC to help people develop meaningful relationships in a safe environment eHarmony, N.

Essentially, the important aspects of information seeking behavior are met with this guided communication. Users can browse profiles based on relevant criteria and a controlled communication environment is there to carefully foster interaction, if any.

Luckily, research has been done on behalf of online dating sites to analyze CMC in online dating communities. In this comprehensive study of respondents who use at least one online dating site such as eHarmony or Match. com , Gibbs sought to identify if URT strategies were utilized and if so, which ones. Even more interesting is the issue of privacy and security. Gibbs remarked that security issues were the most important factor that influenced uncertainty reduction behaviors Gibbs et al, , p.

Basically, the extent to which URT applied to the results was based on security issues. As users were concerned with who they were communicating with, they engaged in more information seeking strategies.

There were also other notable results. In addition to information seeking behavior, users also tended to utilize warranting reducing uncertainty and overcoming security concerns.

This could be accounted for by the fact that within the realm of online dating, the users intend to develop FtF relationships over time. Indeed, this increased the overall use of uncertainty reduction strategies. Consequently, these warranting practices mean that security was a major issue. As expected, users who engaged in these strategies tended to disclose more personal information to the other user.

Moreover, contextual clues were also used to reduce uncertainty and find out about the potential mates they were communicating with. Thus, although visual cues were not there and users were communicating randomly, similar principles of URT still did apply.

Users not only disclosed more information as they used more strategies, but they also tended to value privacy concerns more. In fact, the issue of privacy is one of the major differences from CMC within other social networks like Facebook. Gibbs also remarked that because users do not have access to mutual friends as they would in Facebook, considering potential partners required a much more in depth process of reducing uncertainty Gibbs et al, , p.

Indeed, predicting the level of self disclosure that users participated in was directly correlated to the privacy-related concerns of online dating sites. Thus, since URT strategies mitigated these concerns, many users who reported success in online dating engaged in these strategies quite often. Consequently, we can see that while the Facebook environment is different from online dating sites, users still engaged in similar strategies, albeit in different levels of intensity.

Gibbs also reported that although higher self-disclosure in online dating led to greater perceived success, her findings suggest that there are numerous key distinctions in the type of self-disclosure that was utilized. com members. As users have a choice as to what information they divulge, they can monitor the image that they project on potential partners.

Interestingly, users did not always portray themselves in the most positive light as originally anticipated. In fact, while many users reported to be frankly honest for negative traits, this was detrimental to the perception of the other person. This was accounted for by Gibbs with the hypothesis that users anticipated a future FtF interaction and did not want to take the risk of being caught lying Gibbs, , p.

Self Presentation success, on the other hand, was attributed to positive self disclosure. In relation to URT, we see that users who perceived successful relationships did in fact disclose more information as the interaction went on. However, the type of disclosure was the major distinction. Users who portrayed themselves more positively experienced more success in contrast to users who were more honest with negative characteristics.

To recapitulate, the realm of online dating gives wonderful opportunity to research how FtF interaction theories like URT apply in CMC contexts. Drawing on early research from Berger and Calabrese , information seeking and predictability are strategies that helped people reduce uncertainty about people they meet in person.

Moreover, Gibbs et al also argued that since users tend to divulge information at the same rate as the other person, more open communication is the result of successful strategies that have reduced uncertainty about the other person. In a demographic context, Gudykunst argued that there were no major differences in how both men and women reduced uncertainty.

However, research papers did suggest that blacks tended to practice more interrogation than whites. Despite unflattering research about how the internet fostered a hostile environment, the development of online relationships was quite common. Many of these even eventually led to a FtF interaction.

As visual cues were absent, users improvised by offering textual cues like smileys. This made the overall impersonal experience much more humanesqe. According to Sheldon , Facebook interactions applied well to URT. As users interacted more, their level of uncertainty decreased. This too follows a pattern similar to that seen in overall use, with adults under the age of 50, those who are LGB or who have higher levels of educational attainment more likely to report finding a spouse or committed partner through these platforms.

Online dating users are more likely to describe their overall experience with using dating sites or apps in positive, rather than negative, terms. For the most part, different demographic groups tend to view their online dating experiences similarly.

But there are some notable exceptions. While majorities across various demographic groups are more likely to describe their searches as easy, rather than difficult, there are some differences by gender. There are substantial gender differences in the amount of attention online daters say they received on dating sites or apps. The survey also asked online daters about their experiences with getting messages from people they were interested in.

And while gender differences remain, they are far less pronounced. Online daters widely believe that dishonesty is a pervasive issue on these platforms.

By contrast, online daters are less likely to think harassment or bullying, and privacy violations, such as data breaches or identify theft, are very common occurrences on these platforms. Some experts contend that the open nature of online dating — that is, the fact that many users are strangers to one another — has created a less civil dating environment and therefore makes it difficult to hold people accountable for their behavior.

This survey finds that a notable share of online daters have been subjected to some form of harassment measured in this survey. Fewer online daters say someone via a dating site or app has threatened to physically harm them.

Younger women are particularly likely to encounter each of these behaviors. The likelihood of encountering these kinds of behaviors on dating platforms also varies by sexual orientation. LGB users are also more likely than straight users to say someone on a dating site or app continued to contact them after they told them they were not interested, called them an offensive name or threatened to physically harm them.

The creators of online dating sites and apps have at times struggled with the perception that these sites could facilitate troubling — or even dangerous — encounters.

And although there is some evidence that much of the stigma surrounding these sites has diminished over time, close to half of Americans still find the prospect of meeting someone through a dating site unsafe. Americans who have never used a dating site or app are particularly skeptical about the safety of online dating.

There are some groups who are particularly wary of the idea of meeting someone through dating platforms. Age and education are also linked to differing attitudes about the topic.

Americans — regardless of whether they have personally used online dating services or not — also weighed in on the virtues and pitfalls of online dating. These users also believe dating sites and apps generally make the process of dating easier.

On the other hand, people who said online dating has had a mostly negative effect most commonly cite dishonesty and the idea that users misrepresent themselves. Pluralities also believe that whether a couple met online or in person has little effect on the success of their relationship. Public attitudes about the impact or success of online dating differ between those who have used dating platforms and those who have not. People who have ever used a dating site or app also have a more positive assessment of relationships forged online.

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This is a blog on computer mediated communication and online dating. The following sample research paper shows how those who engage in online dating undergo a sociological process of reducing uncertainty. Social networking sites have shown to be the main driving force behind online dating and much research has done been on this behalf to show how it is changing the rules of dating, so to speak.

Technology has undoubtedly changed the way that human beings communicate with one another today. As the internet has expanded heavily in the last ten years, so have online products and services that utilize communication on a mass scale. As more users are using the internet, CMC is popular within the context of Social Networking Sites SNS. Within the realm of SNS, online dating sites like eHarmony, Match. com and even Tinder have also become popular because they are tailored to individuals looking to meet potential mates.

According to Gibbs et al , over ten million Americans have a profile on at least one dating website p. Internationally, Match. com has over twelve-million members Gibbs, , p. This new technological landscape of communication poses both risks and opportunities for the user who is looking to find a potential mate. Moreover, communication over the internet also offers great research opportunities regarding whether traditional studies of communication among humans applies in this online context.

One such theory, Uncertainty Reduction Theory URT , predicted that there are seven factors in human exchange and three basic, yet essential, strategies that humans utilize in reducing anxiety when meeting another person Twente, N.

While the implementation of social networking and dating sites have changed the way in which we communicate with one another, the rules of social interaction according to URT still apply, albeit in different contexts. Firstly, it is important to define relevant terms and premises that will aid our discussion. com or E-Mail.

Face to Face hereafter referred to as FtF interaction is the traditional face to face interaction that exists among humans where visual cues are present. A critical premise of our discussion is that people who use online dating sites via CMC are using it in the hope that it will lead to eventual FtF communication.

Another important term will be self-monitor. The concept of being a self-monitor will be integral in our discussion of online dating because the information we choose to display online is usually highly selective and for the purpose of attracting a mate for a FtF interaction.

Finally, URT will refer to the classic theory by Berger that theorized that humans use specific strategies and cues before divulging more personal information p. URT will be discussed more thoroughly later in the paper. In our discussion, it is important to review relevant literature regarding technology, use of social media and relationships , communication and online dating in general. Firstly, we will discuss the original theories regarding FtF communication as outlined in URT.

Berger and Calabrese , Dawkins, and Gibbs et al, will give relevant background information and details. Moreover, Twente N. will outline the specific strategies and factors that influence human behavior regarding reducing uncertainty.

Gudykunst will also discuss how URT applies within the contexts of different ethnicities and sex. This will allow us to get comprehensive background information. Next, it is important to have a basic understanding of how CMC developed and the early schools of thought that analyzed this interaction Parks, While highly pessimistic, Parks offered evidence that online relationships can not only be successful, but can develop into eventual FtF interaction.

Sheldon will show that interaction on Facebook offers a wealth of information regarding how we deal with uncertainty within a network where we tend to know most of the individuals in person, or have at least met them on one occasion. Also, Sheldon will demonstrate that individuals in SNS use specific cues and elements of interaction alongside strategies of URT to predict their behavior.

Finally, we will investigate how online dating sites like eHarmony integrate scientific principles of communication and how well they apply to URT. A general view of the process of meeting individuals and how communication is facilitated will be offered by the eHarmony website eHarmony, N. This will allow us to analyze exactly how applicable URT is to CMC settings and how well the dating service tailors to the different context of communication.

Furthermore, we will look at case studies specific to online dating sites like Match. com and eHarmony. Gibbs will provide an in-depth study of Match. com members to show that in an online setting, members tend to practice similar uncertainty reduction strategies in anticipation of a FtF meeting. Specifically, what strategies are mostly utilized and what cues are critical to the overall interaction. In meeting new people FtF, we tend to engage in behaviors that reduce our uncertainty about the other person.

This original URT was supplemented by Berger by including that humans tend to reduce uncertainty by utilizing one or all of the three strategies: passive, active and interactive Dawkins, , p. Of the strategies listed, observing others where the person is likely to act natural is passive while being in direct contact with them is active Twente, N. An interactive strategy, however, includes communicating with the person directly in an effort to find out more about the person.

The interactive strategy of engaging in information seeking behavior is by far the most important aspect of reducing uncertainty. This means that as we meet new people, we want to find out more about them to reduce our uncertainty about them. However, studies suggest that we are also hesitant to divulge personal information about ourselves so easily. This means that as we are looking for information about others, we tend to only divulge information at the same rate as other people do in FtF communication.

This would make sense as we tend to fear judgment by other people that we do not know as well. There also exist some demographic differences in URT. According to William Gudykunst and Mitchell Hammer in The Influence of Ethnicity, Gender, and Dyadic Composition on Uncertainty Reduction In Initial Interactions, there were differences among blacks and whites in their communicative behavior. Moreover, their results did not suggest that gender played a role in using uncertainty reduction strategies Gudykunst, , p.

This means that men and women tend to act similarly in reducing uncertainty in social situations. Essentially, the URT strategy of information seeking was higher in those that were more self-conscious of their behavior.

Other than that, ethnicity and gender did not affect URT in the FtF context that the study was researched within. Next, it is important to understand the early schools of thought and development of online communication. His literature review argued that this was true because people within CMC settings exert more verbal aggression, blunt disclosure and negative behavior in comparison to groups in FtF settings Parks, , p.

Despite the negative feedback from other scholars, Parks found evidence that online relationships can develop and people can adapt their behavior to account for the missing aspects of interaction, like physical proximity and frequency. For instance, even in early as , Parks argued that online settings can foster the growth of meaningful relationships, despite the shortcomings of missing cues in FtF communication.

Even more surprising is the notion that the relationships that developed online tended to expand to FtF communication over time:. Although nearly all respondents used direct E-mail About a third had used the telephone The average number of channels used was 2. These findings imply that relationships that begin on line rarely stay there Parks, , p.

This research implies that even as early in , the internet and CMC did foster the development of new relationships that eventually extended out of the scope of online interaction. This had a lot to do with how users managed uncertainty with the tools they had. Since visual and aural cues were not always present, the use of smileys and other improvised cues were used to develop rapport with other individuals Parks, , p.

Essentially, the way that people communicated online in involved an adaptation of visual cues to textual ones. By , the growth of online dating sites resulted in services that were tailored specifically to meet the needs to people looking to find relationships online. These services were designed to facilitate, foster and encourage the growth of successful relations that extended outside of CMC. Her study of college students suggested that URT did apply cohesively in this CMC setting: users who interacted a lot tended to experience less uncertainty Sheldon, , p.

Indeed, from to , not much has changed in terms of what is possible within the realm of CMC. While users can share photos, videos and other forms of multimedia, the factors of proximity and physical cues are still not there. Essentially, CMC settings are successful in fostering relationships because visual cues are not requirements of interaction and when they are necessary, textual cues were seen to be comparable alternatives.

Facebook relationships thrive on the level of intimacy within self-disclosure. This means that the more we disclose to others in terms of quality, not so much quality, the more meaningful the relationship becomes. This supports URT because as we disclose more and trust others, we develop stronger relationships. As we develop stronger online relationships, we reduce the overall uncertainty about the other person. Thus, interactions on Facebook appear more like FtF communication than meets the eye.

As predictability was also a critical aspect of URT, the evidence would suggest that CMC relationships that developed on Facebook took on the same conventional characteristics of FtF interactions. Consequently, while the context for communication is entirely different in an online setting, the means and social processes involved in developing friendships was still consistent.

However, it is important to understand that Facebook offers an environment where we tend to know most of our connections in person, see their pictures and have the ability to seek out information and context clues from their activity.

Therefore, it is also important to study how URT and the strategies apply in CMC when we do not necessarily know or have existing FtF relationships with the other person. Such a case study is other online dating sites. eHarmony offers a great example to understand how URT applies to a CMC setting where users may not know their connections very well.

Neil Warren utilized his 35 years of clinical experience to launch a service that would utilize scientific research on CMC to help people develop meaningful relationships in a safe environment eHarmony, N.

Essentially, the important aspects of information seeking behavior are met with this guided communication. Users can browse profiles based on relevant criteria and a controlled communication environment is there to carefully foster interaction, if any. Luckily, research has been done on behalf of online dating sites to analyze CMC in online dating communities.

In this comprehensive study of respondents who use at least one online dating site such as eHarmony or Match. com , Gibbs sought to identify if URT strategies were utilized and if so, which ones. Even more interesting is the issue of privacy and security. Gibbs remarked that security issues were the most important factor that influenced uncertainty reduction behaviors Gibbs et al, , p. Basically, the extent to which URT applied to the results was based on security issues. As users were concerned with who they were communicating with, they engaged in more information seeking strategies.

There were also other notable results. In addition to information seeking behavior, users also tended to utilize warranting reducing uncertainty and overcoming security concerns.

Dangerous Liaisons: is everyone doing it online?,Introduction

AdCompare Top 10 Online Dating Sites - Try the Best Dating Sites Today!This can also be handy if youre very busy and dont have time to navigate between Types: All Ages Dating Sites, Senior Dating Sites, Gay Dating Sites AdFind Love With the Help Of Top 5 Dating Sites. Make a Year to Remember! Online Dating Has Already Changed The Lives of Millions of People. Join blogger.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past monthService catalog: Video Chat, See Profiles, Find Singles Nearby, Match with Locals To recapitulate, the realm of online dating gives wonderful opportunity to research how FtF interaction theories like URT apply in CMC contexts. Drawing on early research from Berger 5/5(4) ... read more

Parks, M. com , Gibbs sought to identify if URT strategies were utilized and if so, which ones. com and eHarmony. Consequently, we can see that while the Facebook environment is different from online dating sites, users still engaged in similar strategies, albeit in different levels of intensity. Communication Teacher, 24 3 , This made the overall impersonal experience much more humanesqe.

Some experts contend that the open nature of online dating — that is, the fact that many users are strangers to one another — has created a less civil dating environment and therefore makes it difficult to hold people accountable for their behavior. Neil Warren utilized his 35 years of clinical experience to launch a service that would utilize scientific research on CMC to help people develop meaningful relationships in a safe environment eHarmony, Dating online research. Research Paper on Online Dating, dating online research. Age and education are also linked to differing attitudes about the topic. Author Ultius. Today, three-in-ten U.

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